Is An Unneeded Beta-Blocker Making You Feel Logy?

The skeptical cardiologist saw a patient recently who  had undergone stenting of a 95% blocked right coronary artery. Mr Jones had presented  a year ago to our ER 2 days after he first began experiencing a light pressure-type discomfort in his left shoulder and scapular region. This pain persisted, waxing and waning, without a clear relationship to exertion or position or movement of his shoulder.

Upon arrival in the ER, his ECG was normal but his cardiac enzymes were slightly elevated (troponin peaking 0.92), thus he was diagnosed with a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI).

He’s done great since the stent procedure fixed the coronary blockage that caused his infarct and chest pain, but during our office visit he related that since his hospitalization he had been feeling “logy.” 

Being a lover of words, my ears perked up at this new-to-me adjective, and I asked him to describe what he meant by logy. For him, loginess was a feeling of fatigue or lacking energy.

Indeed, the online Merriam-Webster dictionary defines logy as sluggish or groggy. It is pronounced usually with a long o and a hard g.

The origin is unclear but has nothing to do with rum:

Based on surface resemblance, you might guess that “logy” (also sometimes spelled “loggy”) is related to “groggy,” but that’s not the case. “Groggy” ultimately comes from “Old Grog,” the nickname of an English admiral who was notorious for his cloak made of a fabric called grogram – and for adding water to his crew’s rum. The sailors called the rum mixture “grog” after the admiral. Because of the effect of grog, “groggy” came to mean “weak and unsteady on the feet or in action.” No one is really sure about the origin of “logy,” but experts speculate that it comes from the Dutch word log, meaning “heavy.” Its first recorded use in English, from an 1847 London newspaper, refers to a “loggy stroke” in rowing.

Fatigue is a common, nonspecific symptom that we all feel at times. It is more common as we age and it can be challenging for both patients and physicians to sort out when it needs to be further evaluated.

Occasionally, fatigue is the only symptom of a significant cardiac condition, but more frequently in the patient population I see it is either noncardiac (low thyroid, anemia, etc.) or iatrogenic

When a patient tells me they are feeling fatigued I immediately scan their med list for potential logigenic drugs.

In this case, my patient had been started on a low dosage of the beta-blocker carvedilol (brand name Coreg) after his stent, and I suspected this was why he had felt logy for the past year.

In cardiology, we utilize beta-blockers in many situations-arrhythmias, heart failure, and heart attacks to name a few, and they are well-known to have fatigue as a common side effect. There was a really good chance that Mr. Jones’s loginess was due to the carvedilol.

It’s important to review all medications at each patient visit to check for side effects, interactions and benefits, and in the case of Mr. Jones’ carvedilol, loginess.

Do All Patients Post-Revascularization or Post-MI Need To Take Beta-Blockers

Beta-blockers (BBs) are frequently started in patients after a stenting procedure or coronary bypass surgery, and continued indefinitely. However, the evidence for their benefit in such  patients with normal LV function long term is lacking.

If any post-revascularization population benefits from BBs, it is those, like Mr. Jones who have had a myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack) prior to the procedure, however the smaller the infarct, the less the benefits.

And with the widespread use of early stenting to treat MI, infarcts are much smaller and dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) less likely.

In those patients with minimal damage and normal LV function, the benefits appear minimal. For this reason in the last 5 to 10 years I’ve been stopping BBs in this population if there are any significant side effects.

An “Expert Analysis” published in JACC in 2017 noted that:

A 2015 meta-analysis of 10 observational acute MI studies including more than 40,000 patients showed that beta-blockers reduced the risk of all-cause death  However, the benefit of these agents was not found in all subgroups and seemed confined to the patients with reduced LVEF, with low use of other secondary prevention drugs, or NSTEMI.

In a study of almost 180,000 patients post MI with normal LV systolic function in the UK between 2007 and 2013 there was no difference in mortality at one year in patients discharged with or without beta-blockers.

The only way to answer this question definitely would be with a randomized controlled trial and, to my surprise and delight, such a study (CAPITAL-RCT (Carvedilol Post-Intervention Long-Term Administration in Large-scale Randomized Controlled Trial) was published in PLOS One in August of 2018.

I’ll save readers the details, but the bottom line is that patients treated with optimal contemporary therapy for acute MI, whose LV function was not significantly impaired, did not benefit in any way from treatment with carvedilol, the beta-blocker my patient was taking.

It’s rare that we get such definitive evidence for a change in treatment that reverses what is in current guidelines. This has the potential to affect tens of thousands of patients and improve their quality of life. It should be trumpeted far and wide. The cynic in me suspects that if it were a study demonstrating the benefits of a new drug, physicians would be bombarded with the new information.

Helping Patients Feel Less Logy

We will be ordering an echocardiogram on Mr. Jones, and if his LV function is normal we will stop his carvedilol and see if he feels significantly better.  

I feel like stopping a drug that is not beneficial and that is causing a lifetime of loginess is an incredibly important intervention a cardiologist can make. It’s not as life-saving as stenting for acute MI, but saving quality of life is something this non-invasive cardiologist can do every day for every patient.

Skeptically Yours,

-ACP

N.B. The summary of the recent CAPITAL-RCT:

STEMI patients with successful primary PCI within 24 hours from the onset and with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥40% were randomly assigned in a 1-to-1 fashion either to the carvedilol group or to the no beta-blocker group within 7 days after primary PCI. The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, and hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. Between August 2010 and May 2014, 801 patients were randomly assigned to the carvedilol group (N = 399) or the no beta-blocker group (N = 402) at 67 centers in Japan. The carvedilol dose was up-titrated from 3.4±2.1 mg at baseline to 6.3±4.3 mg at 1-year. During median follow-up of 3.9 years with 96.4% follow-up, the cumulative 3-year incidences of both the primary endpoint and any coronary revascularization were not significantly different between the carvedilol and no beta-blocker groups (6.8% and 7.9%, P = 0.20, and 20.3% and 17.7%, P = 0.65, respectively). There also was no significant difference in LVEF at 1-year between the 2 groups (60.9±8.4% and 59.6±8.8%, P = 0.06).

 

 

 

 

Foxglove Is Growing In My Garden: Bunnies Beware!

While surveying his garden this morning the skeptical cardiologist felt the cockles of his heart warm when he viewed the budding plant below:

The plant I beheld was the glorious, mystical and medicinal foxglove or digitalis purpurea upon which I have waxed poetic innumerable times (see here and here and here.)

It is from the foxglove that William Withering made his potions to treat dropsy (the ancient term for heart failure)  and since writing about my encounter with the foxglove  in Wales I’ve been on a quest to get some in my garden.

This mission was accomplished when Quiet Village Landscaping installed the plants a month ago.

Now if I can keep them growing I’ll be able to enjoy the tall, showy spikes of tubular pink or purple flowers with speckled throats that should emerge in summer.

Foxglove and its medicinal derivative digitalis can be toxic to both humans and animals. Let’s hope  that the five bunnies that were frolicking in my yard and eating my hosta earlier in the spring have the good sense to eschew chewing it.

My first encounter with foxglove is entitled “Withering Away in Wales” and I’ve copied it below.



The skeptical cardiologist was born in Wrexham, North Wales, not too far from the northern area in Wales known as Snowdonia, the ancestral lands of the great Princes of Wales.

I’ve been back to this wonderful area several times in the last dozen years, entranced by its beauty and connection with my ancestor, Prince Llewelyn the Great.

Most recently I stayed in Beddgelert, a small village nestled at the base of Mount Snowdon, which , according to (possibly tourism-inspired) legend, is named after the grave of Gelert, the faithful hound of Prince Llewelyn.

A brief hike along the gurgling Glaslyn river takes you to a stone monument with these words inscribed:

IMG_4547
Two Pearson children show their appreciation of Gelert’s heroic behavior. Note the purplish flower on the long green stalk in the background, next to the stone wall-FOXGLOVE!

“In the 13th century Llewelyn, prince of North Wales, had a palace at Beddgelert. One day he went hunting without Gelert, ‘The Faithful Hound’, who was unaccountably absent.                                                  On Llewelyn’s return the truant, stained and smeared with blood, joyfully sprang to meet his master. The prince alarmed hastened to find his son, and saw the infant’s cot empty, the bedclothes and floor covered with blood.                      The frantic father plunged his sword into the hound’s side, thinking it had killed his heir. The dog’s dying yell was answered by a child’s cry. Llewelyn searched and discovered his boy unharmed, but nearby lay the body of a mighty wolf which Gelert had slain.

The prince filled with remorse is said never to have smiled again. He buried Gelert here”.

IMG_0007While lingering in the little stone wall enclosure within which a statue of the faithful Gelert stood I espied a plant that looked like digitalis purpurea, more commonly known as foxglove.

Moving closer, I realized that I had indeed come face to face with a wildly growing foxglove,  the plant that William Withering had utilized to treat patients with dropsy in the late -1700s.

I was understandably ecstatic as I was  on a sort of mission to observe foxglove in its native environs. I had expected to view the medicinal plant in Shropshire where William Withering was born and where he had encountered “the old woman of Shropshire” who first inspired him to use foxglove for dropsy.

This unexpected foxglove experience seemed like a serendipitous harbinger of wonderful Witheringesque experiences to come.

Sure enough as we left the fog-enshrouded mountains of Snowdonia and drove on the left side of narrow, winding Welsh roads toward Shropshire we spotted  multiple large patches of wildly growing foxglove in a nearby meadow.

dpeating foxgloveAlthough my children were eager to taste the foxglove and see if the inotropic properties of the digitalis within would make their hearts beat stronger and make them more powerful, I restrained them, for Withering’s writings and subsequent years of clinical experience with digitalis tell us that the therapeutic window is narrow and toxicity manifested by nausea and vomiting common.

Witheringly Yours,

-ACP

Is Your Doctor’s White Coat (Or Tie Or Hand Shake) a Threat to Your Health?

The patients of the skeptical cardiologist have probably noted that over the last 10 years he has transitioned from wearing a tie to not wearing a tie and from always wearing a white coat to rarely wearing a white coat.

I wrote about this in 2015  in a previous post entitled “The Tie, The White Coat and The Fist Bump“:”

“My role models and mentors during my medical training taught me what I considered to be the proper appearance and demeanor of the professional  physician.

The male doctor wore a dress shirt and a tie. The doctor wore a white coat over his/her regular clothes. The more senior the doctor was in the medical hierarchy the longer the white coat and the more impressive the words written on the coat.

Presumably, this professional appearance of the doctor increased the confidence that the patient had in the professionalism of the doctor.

Upon encountering a patient in the hospital room or office exam room, the doctor extends his right hand, greets the patient and smiles and shakes hands.

I wore a tie and a white coat and shook hands consistently during the first 20 years of my practice but gradually these markers of a good doctor have fallen under scrutiny.”

A major issue with all three of these, I pointed out , is transmission of bacteria and viruses.

Now Aaron Frakt at The Incidental Economist has summarized the concerns about the doctor’s white coat in particular in a great article originally published in the New York Times entitled Why Your Doctor’s White Coat Can Be a Threat to Your Health | The Incidental Economist.

It’s a good short read I highly recommend.

Don’t be surprised if the next time you see me I am sans tie and white coat and do not offer a handshake.

Casually Yours,

-ACP

A Guide To Using Apple Watch and Kardia ECG devices-What They Can and Can’t Do

Many patients (and perhaps physicians) are confused as to how best to utilize personal ECG devices. I received this question illustrating such confusion from a reader recently:

I first came across your website a year ago during persistent angina attacks, and returning now due to increasing episodes of symptoms akin to Afib. I bought a Kardia 2 yrs ago for the angina episodes, and looking to buy the Apple Series 4 for the Afib, as I want to try a wearable for more constant monitoring. What I would greatly appreciate if you had a basic guide for both the Kardia & Apple devices, specifically when and how to best employ them for unstable angina and detecting undiagnosed Afib. As in, what can I as a patient provide to you as a doctor for diagnosis in advance of a formal visit. I’m a US Iraq vet medically retired in the UK, and most of my concerns get dismissed out of hand as “anxiety”, not sure why they thought a stent would cure my anxiety though  

Personal, Wearable ECG Devices Won’t Diagnose Angina (or Heart Attacks)

First. please understand that none of these devices have any significant role in the management of angina. Angina, which is chest/arm/jaw discomfort due to a poor blood supply to the heart muscle cannot be reliably diagnosed by the single lead ECG recording provided by the Apple Watch, the Kardia Band or the Kardia mobile ECG device. Even a medical-grade 12 lead ECG doesn’t reliably diagnose angina and we rely on a constellation of factors from the patient’s history to advanced testing to determine how best to manage and diagnose angina.

Second, as you are having episodes “akin to Afib”, all of these devices can be helpful in determining what your cardiac rhythm is at the time of the episodes if they last long enough for you to make an ECG recording.

The single lead ECG recording you can make from the Apple Watch, the Kardia Band and from the Kardia mobile device can very reliably tell us what the cardiac rhythm was when you were feeling symptoms.

The algorithms of these devices do a good job of determining if the rhythm Is atrial fibrillation. Also, if the rhythm is totally normal they are good at determining normality.

However, sometimes extra or premature beats confuse the algorithms resulting in an unclassified tracing and (rarely) an inaccurate declaration of afib

These tracings can be reviewed by a competent cardiologist to sort out what the rhythm really is.

In all of these cases, having an actual recording of the cardiac rhythm at the time of symptoms is immensely helpful to your doctor or cardiologist in determining what is causing your problems.

My recommendation, therefore, would be to make several recordings at the time of your symptoms. Print them out and carefully label the print-out with exactly what you were feeling when it was recorded and present these to the doctor who will be reviewing your case.

As I’ve mentioned in previous posts (see here), my patients’ use of Kardia with the KardiaPro online service has in many cases taken the place of expensive and inconvenient long term monitoring devices.

Case Example-Diagnosing Rare And Brief Attacks Of Atrial Fibrillation

I recently saw a patient who I think perfectly demonstrates how useful these devices can be for clarifying what is causing intermittent episodes of palpitations-irregular, pounding, or racing heart beats.

She was lying on a sofa one day when she suddenly noted her heart “pumping fast” and with irregularity. The symptoms last for about an hour. She had noticed this occurred about once a year occurring out of the blue.

Her PCP ordered a long term monitor, a stress test and an echocardiogram.

The monitor showed some brief episodes of what I would term atrial tachycardia but not atrial fibrillation but the patient did not experience one of her once per year hour long episodes of racing heart during the recording. Thus, we had not yet solved the mystery of the prolonged bouts of racing heart.

She was referred to me for evaluation and I recommended she purchase an Alivecor device and sign up for the KardiaPro service which allows me to view all of her recordings online. The combination of the device plus one year of the KardiaPro service costs $120.

She purchased the device and made some occasional recordings when she felt fine and we documented that these were identified as normal by Kardia. For months nothing else happened.

Then one day in April she had her typical prolonged symptom of a racing heart and she made the recording below (She was actually away from home but had the Kardia device with her.)

When she called the office I logged into my KardiaPro account and pulled up her recordings and lo and behold the Kardia device was correct and she was in atrial fibrillation at a rate of 113 BPM.

With the puzzle of her palpitations solved we could now address proper treatment.

Continuous Monitoring for Abnormal Rhythms

Finally, let’s discuss the wearables ability to serve as a monitor and alert a patient when they are in an abnormal rhythm but free of any symptoms.

My reader’s intent was to acquire a device for “constant monitoring”:

I’m looking to buy the Apple Series 4 for the Afib, as I want to try a wearable for more constant monitoring.

This capability is theoretically available with Apple Watch 4’s ECG and with the Kardia Band (using SmartRhythm) which works with Apple Watch Series 1-3.

However, I have not been impressed with Apple Watch’s accuracy in this area (see here and here) and would not at this point rely solely on any device to reliably alert patients to silent or asymptomatic atrial fibrillation.

In theory, all wearables that track heart rate and alert the wearer if the resting heart rates goes above 100 BPM have the capability of detecting atrial fibrillation. If you receive an alert of high HR from a non ECG-capable wearable you can then record an ECG with the Kardia mobile ECG to see if it really is atrial fibrillation.

At 99$, the Kardia is the most cost-effective way of confirming atrial fibrillation for consumers.

I hope this post adds some clarity to the often confusing field of personal and wearable ECG devices.

Electroanatomically Yours,

-ACP

Can The Apple Watch Or Kardia ECG Monitor Detect Heart Attacks?

The skeptical cardiologist recently received this email from a reader:

With the new Apple Watch that’s out now, people have suggested my husband (who had a heart attack at 36) should get it since it could detect a heart attack. But I keep remembering what you said – that these devices can’t detect heart attacks and that Afib isn’t related to a heart attack most of the time – is that still the case? I don’t really know how to explain to people that it can’t do this, since absolutely everyone believes it does.

The answer is a resounding and unequivocal NO!

If we are using the term heart attack to mean what doctors call a myocardial infarction (MI) there should be no expectation that any wearable or consumer ECG product can reliably diagnose a heart attack.

The Apple Watch even in its latest incarnation and with the ECG feature and with rhythm monitoring activated is incapable of detecting a myocardial infarction.

Similarly, although the AliveCor Kardia ECG monitor is superb at diagnosing rhythm abnormalities it is not capable of detecting an MI

To make this even clearer note that when you record an ECG on the Apple Watch it intermittently flashes the following warning:

 

Note: “Apple Watch never checks for heart attacks”

How did such this idea take root in the consciousness of so many Americans?

Perhaps this article in 9-5 Mac had something to do with it

The article begins
Scott Killian never imagined his Apple Watch might save his life, but that’s exactly what happened a few weeks ago when he had a heart attack in the middle of the night. Killian recently shared his personal experience with 9to5Mac, and the details of his story are absolutely amazing.
In reality,  the man received an alarm that his resting heart rate was high at night. Apparently he also was experiencing chest pain and went to an ER where a cardiac enzyme was elevated.  Subsequently he underwent testing that revealed advanced coronary artery disease and he had a bypass operation. 
Even if we assume all the details of this story are accurate it is absolutely not a case of Apple Watch diagnosing an MI.
 
A high resting heart rate is not neccessarily an indicator of an MI and most MIs are not characterized by high heart rates.  We have had the technology with wearables to monitor resting heart rate for some time and no one has ever suggested this can be used to detect MI.
 
The rate of false alarms is so high and the rate of failure to diagnose MI so low that this is a useless measure and should not provide any patient reassurance.
 
The writer of this story and the editors at 9-5 Mac should be ashamed of this misinformation.
 
Several other news sources have needlessly muddied the water on this question including Healthline and Fox News:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Fox News article entitled “Could The Apple Watch Series 4 save you from a heart attack” quotes a non-physician who suggests that AW can detect early signs of a heart attack:
 

In clear cut cases the Apple Watch could make the difference between life and death,” says Roger Kay, president of Endpoint Technologies Associates. Because you wear the Apple Watch at all times, it can detect an early sign of a stroke or a heart attack, and that early indication is critical, he says.

And the Healthline article on the new Apple Watch also incorrectly implies it can diagnose MI:

The device, which was unveiled last week, has an electrocardiogram (ECG) app that can detect often overlooked heart abnormalities that could lead to a heart attack.

And if you are felled by a heart problem, the fall detector built into the Apple Watch Series 4 could alert medical professionals that you need help

Fox News and Healthline should modify their published articles to correct the misinformation they have previously provided.

And it is still true that  although both Apple Watch and Kardia can diagnose atrial fibrillation the vast majority of the time acute heart attacks are not associated with atrial fibrillation.

Readers, please spread the word far and wide to friends and family-Apple Watch cannot detect heart attacks!

Skeptically Yours,

-ACP

Is It Time To Stop Eating Deadly Eggs Or Time To Stop Putting Nutritional Epidemiology In The Headlines?

After carefully ingesting the new JAMA egg study that has gotten the media and many patients in a tizzy I consumed a three egg (of course with yolk) omelette.

I am happy to report that I survived the incident and am not concerned at all that my longevity has been compromised.

My 2013 summary of eggs, dietary cholesterol and heart disease (see here) is still valid and I highly recommend patients and readers read that post plus my updates on eggs with newer data (see here and here) rather than information related to the new egg study.

Although CNN and other news outlets lead with an inflammatory headline suggesting that eating those 3 eggs increased my risk of heart disease the new egg study could not possibly prove causation because it was an observational study.

Nutritional epidemiology has come under considerable criticism in the last few years for churning out these weak observational studies .John Ionaddis has been particularly vocal about these limitations, writing:

A large majority of human nutrition research uses nonrandomized observational designs, but this has led to little reliable progress. This is mostly due to many epistemologic problems, the most important of which are as follows: difficulty detecting small (or even tiny) effect sizes reliably for nutritional risk factors and nutrition-related interventions; difficulty properly accounting for massive confounding among many nutrients, clinical outcomes, and other variables; difficulty measuring diet accurately; and suboptimal research reporting. Tiny effect sizes and massive confounding are largely unfixable problems that narrowly confine the scenarios in which nonrandomized observational research is useful

This egg study contains the usual flaws that render it inconclusive:

First, the study relies on data collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Have you ever sat down and tried to recall exactly what you ate in the previous week? How accurate do you think your estimate of specific food items would be?

Ed Archer has written about the inaccuracy of the food frequency questionairres extensively. Here’s a sample from one of his devastating critiques;

In lieu of measuring actual dietary intake, epidemiologists collected millions of unverified verbal and textual reports of memories of perceptions of dietary intake. Given that actual dietary intake and reported memories of perceptions of intake are not in the same ontological category, epidemiologists committed the logical fallacy of “Misplaced Concreteness.” This error was exacerbated when the anecdotal (self-reported) data were impermissibly transformed (i.e., pseudo-quantified) into proxy-estimates of nutrient and caloric consumption via the assignment of “reference” values from databases of questionable validity and comprehensiveness. These errors were further compounded when statistical analyses of diet-disease relations were performed using the pseudo-quantified anecdotal data. These fatal measurement, analytic, and inferential flaws were obscured when epidemiologists failed to cite decades of research demonstrating that the proxy-estimates they created were often physiologically implausible (i.e., meaningless) and had no verifiable quantitative relation to the actual nutrient or caloric consumption of participants.

In addition to unreliable initial data the subjects were followed up to 30 years without any update on their food consumption. Has your food consumption remained constant over the last 30 years? Mine hasn’t. I went from avoiding eggs to eating them ad lib and without concern for my cardiovascular health about 5 years ago after looking at the science related to dietary cholesterol.

It’s Hard To Get Around Confounding Variables

Observational studies like this one try to take into account as many factors as they can which might influence outcomes. Invariably, however, there are factors which are unaccounted for, indeed unknowable, which could be influencing the results.

Individuals who were avidly trying to follow a healthy lifestyle in 1985 likely had drummed into their heads the message when these questionnaires were filled out that they needed to limit egg consumption. These individuals were also likely following other healthy habits, including exercising more, smoking less, and eating more fruits and vegetables and less junk food.

Observational studies cannot account for all these confounding variables.

At science-media centre.org they do a fantastic job of having independent experts in the field present their evaluation of scientific studies which have been popularized in the media. For the JAMA egg study their analyses can be found here.

Prof Kevin McConway, Emeritus Professor of Applied Statistics, The Open University emphasized the problem with residual confounding :

That’s because, for instance, there will be many other differences between people that eat many eggs and people that eat few other than their egg consumption.  These other differences might be what’s causing higher death rates in people who eat a lot of eggs, rather than anything to do with the eggs themselves.  The researchers point out that this has been a particular problem in some previous studies, and that this may have been a reason for inconsistency in the results of those studies.  They have made considerable efforts to allow statistically for other differences in the new study.  But they, correctly, point out that their own study is still not immune from this problem (known as residual confounding), and that therefore it’s impossible to conclude from this new study that eating eggs, or consuming more cholesterol in the diet, is the cause of the differences in cardiovascular disease rates and overall death rates that they observed.

For observational epidemiological studies like this egg study which show increased risks that are only “modest” it is highly likely that the next such study will find something different.

Eggs Are Not Eaten In Isolation

Finally, It’s important to remember that eggs, like most foods, are rarely consumed without accompanying food. This accompaniment is often bacon in the US. Eggs are often cooked in oil or butter and unless you cook them yourself you are unlikely to know the nature of the oil.

Eggs are frequently components of recipes.

We have no idea how these factors play into the results of the egg study.

So, rather than drastically cutting egg consumption I propose that there be a drastic cut in the production of weak observational nutrition studies and a moratorium on inflammatory media coverage of meaningless nutritional studies.

Eggsponentially Yours,

-ACP

N.B. For a good article on this topic read Julia Volluz of Vox on why nutritional science is so messy

L’Italia È Molto Bella

Dr. and Mrs. Skeptical Cardiologist have returned from two weeks in Italy and I have to say, this is one of the most beautiful places I’ve ever seen.

Here are my top 3 experiences:

  1. The Cinque Terre. Five villages tucked into the cliffs above the Mediterranean and connected by trains and trails, featuring gorgeous vistas available to those willing to climb and hike.
Vernazza, one of the five villages of the Cinque Terre, viewed from the trail that connects it to Monterosso.
Vernazza, from the beginning of the trail to Corniglia. The hike took us about 2 hours and was strenuous but wonderful. 
From high up on the Vernazza-Corniglia trail. Corniglia in foreground, Manarola in distance.

2. The heart of Tuscany, in the Val d’Orcia,

View from our B&B at La Foce, near Montepulciano, looking into the Val d’Orcia.

Garden at the La Foce Estate
From the base of the ruined castle known as the Rocca di Tentennano, which sits on a pinnacle high above the Val d’Orcia, with the small village of the Rocca d’Orcia just below.
Sunset, Rocca d’Orcia with Monte Amiata in the distance.

3. Florence, chock full of Renaissance architecture, art, tourists and incredible panoramic views from Giotto’s Campanille and the top of the Duomo:

Perusing the artwork in front of the Duomo, part of the complex of buildings that make up Florence Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo in Florence, Italy.
“the gloaming” on the river Arno

 

We did lots of stair climbing in Florence. We climbed 463 steps to get to the top of the Duomo, from which Giotto’s Campanille (bell tower) can be seen. An hour earlier we climbed the 414 steps of the bell tower. Per Wikipedia “the tower is one of the showpieces of Florentine Gothic architecture with its design by Giotto, its rich sculptural decorations and its polychrome marble encrustations.”
The skeptical cardiologist descending the narrow and often windy stairs from the Duomo roof. 

To any patients who were inconvenienced by my delayed return, my sincere apologies. The good news is that your cardiologist is now fully recharged and ready to resume practice with renewed vigor and enthusiasm.

ciao

-ACP

Italy And The Valsalva Manouevre

Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723) was an Italian anatomist, physician and surgeon whose name is familiar to cardiologists for two reasons. First, he described what are now termed the sinuses of Valsalva, the three areas of dilatation in the proximal portion of the aorta just outside the opening of the aortic valve.

Second, in his textbook on the ear, De aure humana tractatus, published in 1704 in Bologna, he showed an original method of inflating the middle ear (now called Valsalva’s manoeuvre) in order to expel pus. A variation of this classic Valsalva maneuver is used frequently in cardiology for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

The skeptical cardiologist and his newly-minted bride, will be jetting off to Italy in a few weeks but, alas, we are not visiting Bologna. Hopefully we won’t need to utilize the original Valsalva manouevre to equalize the pressure between our middle ears and the cabin atmosphere in order to prevent otic barotrauma as we descend.

I don’t feel so bad about the rock because the wikipedia caption reads as follows:Sections of Hadrian’s Wall remain along the route, though much has been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects.

I’ve been fascinated by the Roman Empire since I took Latin in high school. I was so obsessed with all things Roman that when my family traveled back to England to visit relatives and such, I insisted on us visiting Hadrian’s Wall. Don’t tell the authorities, but I still possess a rock I took from said wall.

The only time I’ve been to Italy was 30 years ago after presenting at the European Society of Cardiology meeting in Nice, France. I foolishly rented a car and drove north to Lago Maggiore. It was one of the most harrowing experiences of my life.

The Italian Itinerary

This time we are flying into Rome and then taking a train to Florence.

From Florence I’m planning to rent a car (having failed to learn my lesson) to drive to La Foce, an historic estate, which lies on the hills overlooking the Val d’Orcia.

La Foce

We’ll spend two nights in the B&B portion of this place, which sounds amazing:

Midway between Florence and Rome, it is also within easy reach of Siena, Arezzo, Perugia, Assisi, Orvieto. Renaissance and medieval gems such as Pienza, Montepulciano, Monticchiello and Montalcino are only a few miles away. The countryside abounds in lovely walks among woods and the characteristic crete senesi (clay hills); the food is among the best in Tuscany and famous wines such as the Vino Nobile and Brunello can be tasted in the local cellars. The Val d’Orcia has recently been included among the World Heritage sites of UNESCO.

From the heart of Tuscany, we then drive to the coast of northern Tuscany to meet up with the in-laws in Viareggio.

Manarola

 

After a few nights in Viareggio with Geo (the man on the statin fence) and Wendy, we will all take a ferry to the Cinque Terra, staying in Manarola.

Lastly, we will travel to Milan, and then fly home.

I’ve got a good idea of what the top tourist destinations are in these cities from reading Rick Steves’ book on Italy and from discussions with friends who have been there.

However, we typically prefer wandering semi-aimlessly in great cities, rather than dealing with large tourist herds at the must-see attractions.

I’m actually more interested in La Specola in Florence than I am in seeing Michaelangelo’s David. La Specola:

spans 34 rooms and contains not only zoological subjects, such as a stuffed hippopotamus(a 17th-century Medici pet, which once lived in the Boboli Gardens), but also a collection of anatomical waxes (including those by Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and Clemente Susini), an art developed in Florence in the 17th century for the purpose of teaching medicine. This collection is very famous worldwide for the incredible accuracy and realism of the details, copied from real corpses. Also in La Specola on display are scientific and medical instruments. Parts of the museum are decorated with frescoes and pietra dura representing some of the principal Italian scientific achievements from the Renaissance to the late 18th century.

I tend to rely on Rick Steves’ books for European travel, but if any readers have experience in these Italian areas please feel free to add them to the comments section or send me an email at dr._pearson@icloud.com. I would be especially interested in “off-the-beaten path” things of interest (especially if they have a literary, medical or scientific connection) and restaurant recommendations.

 

To all my patients, please accept my apologies for any rescheduling this may have caused.

In my absence you will be in good hands as my partners, primarily Brian Kaebnick, will be covering for me.

Arrivederci!

-ACP

Are You Doing Enough Push Ups To Save Your Life?

The skeptical cardiologist has always had a fondness for push-ups. Therefore I read with interest a recent study published in JAMAOpen which looked at how many push-ups a group of 30 and 40-something male firefighters from Indiana could do and how that related to cardiovascular outcomes over the next ten years.

The article was published in the peer-reviewed journal JAMA Network Open, and is freely available to access online.

The British National Health Service pointed out that “The UK media has rather over exaggerated these findings:”

Both the Metro and the Daily Mirror highlighted the result of 40 push-ups being “the magic number” for preventing heart disease, but in fact being able to do 10 or more push-ups was also associated with lower heart disease risk.

What Was Studied?

The study involved 1,104 male firefighters (average age 39.6) from 10 fire departments in Indiana who underwent regular medical checks between 2000 and 2010. 

At baseline the participants underwent a physical fitness assessment which included push-up capacity (hereafter referred to as the push-up number (PUN))and treadmill exercise tolerance tests conducted per standardized protocols.

For push-ups, the firefighter was instructed to begin push-ups in time with a metronome set at 80 beats per minute. Clinic staff counted the number of push-ups completed until the participant reached 80, missed 3 or more beats of the metronome, or stopped owing to exhaustion or other symptoms (dizziness, lightheadedness, chest pain, or shortness of breath). Numbers of push-ups were arbitrarily divided into 5 categories in increments of 10 push-ups for each category. Exercise tolerance tests were performed on a treadmill using a modified Bruce protocol until participants reached at least 85% of their maximal predicted heart rates, requested early termination, or experienced a clinical indication for early termination according to the American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines (maximum oxygen consumption [V̇ O2max]).

The main outcomes assessed were new diagnoses of heart disease from enrollment up to 2010. 

Cardiovascular events were verified by periodic examinations at the same clinic or by clinically verified return-to-work forms. Cardiovascular disease–related events (CVD) were defined as incident diagnosis of coronary artery disease or other major CVD event (eg, heart failure, sudden cardiac death)

Here’s the graph of the probability of being free of a CVD event on the y-axis with time on x-axis.

The black line represents those 75 firefighters who couldn’t make it into double digits, the green those 155 who did more than 40 pushups.

Participants able to complete more than 40 push-ups had a significant 96% lower rate of CVD events compared with those completing fewer than 10 push-ups.

It is surprising that the push up number seemed a better predictor of outcomes than the exercise test, This should be taken with a grain of salt because although the investigators report out “VO2 max” the stress tests were not maximal tests.

The firefighters with lower push up numbers were fatter, more likely to smoke and had higher blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol levels.

What useful information can one take from this study?

You definitely cannot say that being able to do more than 40 pushups will somehow prevent heart disease. The PUN is neither causing nor preventing anything.

The PUN is a marker for the overall physical shape of these firefighters. It’s a marker for how these men were taking care of themselves. If you are a 39 year old fireman from Indiana and can’t do 11 push-ups you are in very sorry condition and it is likely evident in numerous other ways.

The <11 PUN crew were a bunch of fat, diabetic, insulin resistant, hyperlipidemic, out-of-shape hypertensives who were heart attacks in the waiting.

Push-ups Are A Great Exercise

Despite the meaningless of this study you should consider adding push-ups to your exercise routine. Doing them won’t save your life but it will contribute to mitigating the weakness and frailty of aging. Don’t obsess about your PUN.

I’ve always liked push-ups and highly recommend them. They require no special equipment or preparation. It’s a quick exercise that builds upper body muscle strength, adds to my core strength and gets my heart rate up a bit. For some reason my office in O’Fallon is always cold so several times during the day when I’m there I’ll do 100 jumping jacks and drop on the carpet and do some push-ups in an effort to get warm.

I don’t do them every day but the last time I tried I could do 50 in less than a minute and that has me convinced I will live forever!

Calisthenically Yours,

-ACP

N.B. In my post on mitigating sarcopenia in the elderly I talked about the importance of resistance exercise:

Americans spend billions on useless supplements and vitamins in their search for better health but exercise is a superior drug, being free  and without drug-related side effects

I’ve spent a lot of time on this blog emphasizing the importance of aerobic exercise for cardiovascular health but I also am a believer in strength and flexibility training for overall health and longevity.

As we age we suffer more and more from sarcopenia-a gradual decrease in muscle mass.

Scientific reviews note that loss of muscle mass and muscle strengh is quite common in individuals over age 65 and is associated with increased dependence, frailty and mortality

Push-ups are a great resistance exercise. For a description of the perfect form for a push up see here.

My Top Four Practice-Changing Presentations From the ACC 2019 Meeting: From Alcohol To Aspirin

The ACC meetings in New Orleans have wrapped up and I must stop letting the good times roll.

In the areas I paid attention to I found these four presentations the most important:

1. After the historic back to back presentations of the Partner 3 and Evolut trials it is clear that catheter-based aortic valve replacement (TAVR) should be the preferred approach to most patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis.

Both TAVR valves (the baloon-expanded Edwards and the self-expanding Medtronic) proved superior to surgical AVR in terms of one year clinical outcomes.

2. The Alcohol-AF Trial. It is well known that binge alcohol consumption (holiday heart) can trigger atrial fibrillation (AF) and that observational studies show a higher incident of AF with higher amounts of alcohol consumption.

This trial was the first ever randomized controlled trial of alcohol abstinence in moderate drinkers with paroxysmal AF (minimum 2 episodes in the last 6 months) or persistent AF requiring cardioversion.

Participants consumed >/= 10 standard drinks per week and were randomized to abstinence or usual consumption.

They underwent comprehensive rhythm monitoring with implantable loop recorders or existing pacemakers and twice daily AliveCor monitoring for 6 months.

Abstinence prolonged AF-free survival by 37% (118 vs 86 days) and lowered the AF burden from 8.2% to 5.6%

AF related hospitalizations occurred in 9% of abstinence patients versus 20% of controls

Those in the abstinence arm also experienced improved symptom severity, weight loss and BP control.

This trial gives me precise numbers to present to my AF patients to show them how important eliminating alcohol consumption is if they want to have less AF episodes.

It further emphasizes the point that lifestyle changes (including weight loss, exercise and stress-reduction) can dramatically reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation.

3. AUGUSTUS. This trial looked at two hugely important questions in patients who have both AF and recent acute coronary syndrome or PCI/stent. The trial was simultaneously published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The questions were:

Apixaban (Eliquis, one of the four newer oral anticoagulants (NOAC)) versus warfarin for patients with AF: which is safer for prevention of stroke related to AF?

Triple therapy with  low dose aspirin and clopidogrel plus warfarin/NOAC versus clopidogrel plus warfarin/NOAC: which is safer in preventing stent thrombosis without causing excess bleeding in patients with AF and recent stent?

Briefly, they found:

The NOAC apixaban patients compared to warfarin had a 31% reduction in bleeding and hospitalization. No difference in ischemic events.

Adding aspirin  increased bleeding by 89%. There was no difference in  ischemic events. (Major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was noted in 10.5% of the patients receiving apixaban, as compared with 14.7% of those receiving a vitamin K antagonist (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.81; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority), and in 16.1% of the patients receiving aspirin, as compared with 9.0% of those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.59 to 2.24; P<0.001).)

This means that the dreaded “triple therapy”  after PCI in patients with AF with its huge bleeding risks no longer is needed.

It also further emphasizes that NOACs should be preferred over warfarin in most patients with AF.

The combination of choice now should be a NOAC like apixaban plus clopidogrel.

4. REDUCE-IT provided further evidence that icosapent ethyl (Vascepa) significantly reduces major cardiovascular events in patients with establshed CV disease on maximally tolerated statin therapy.

The results of the pirmary end point from the REDUCE-IT were presented at the AHA meeting last year and they were very persuasive. At the ACC, Deepak Bhatt presented data on reduction of total ischemic events from the study and they were equally impressive. Adding the pharmaceutical grade esterified form of EPA at 2 grams BID reduced first, second, third and fourth ischemic events in this high risk population.

The benefit was noted on all terciles of baseline triglyceride levels. Thus, the lowest tercile of 81 to 190 mg/dl benefitted as well as the highest tercile (250 to 1401).

Although I dread the costs, it’s time to start discussing adding Vascepa on to statin therapy in high risk ASCVD patients who have trigs>100 .

As I wrote previously I didn’t learn anything from the much ballyhooed and highly anticipated Apple Heart Study . It’s entirely possible more participants were harmed than helped by this study.

Philomathically Yours,

-ACP

Unbiased, evidence-based discussion of the effects of diet, drugs, and procedures on heart disease

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