Dietary guidelines recommend the consumption of milk and dairy products as an important part of a healthy, well-balanced diet The 2010 USDA Guidelines state:
“Milk and milk products contribute many nutrients, such as calcium, vitamin D (for products fortified with vita- min D), and potassium, to the diet. Moderate evidence shows that intake of milk and milk products is linked to improved bone health, especially in children and adolescents. Moderate evidence also indicates that intake of milk and milk products is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and with lower blood pressure in adults.”
However, dairy fat has been portrayed as the unhealthy component of milk and dairy products, largely because it is energy dense and a rich source of saturated fatty acids . Therefore, typical dietary advice recommends fat-reduced milk and dairy products.
Shockingly, and despite expert and government-backed recommendations, the advice to change to fat-reduced or skim milk and dairy products is not supported by any prospective scientific studies.
The main reason cited for the recommendations is that the consumption of saturated fatty acids is related to an increase in total cholesterol which in turn has been related to increased coronary heart disease-the major cause of heart attacks. As we discuss this topic more, we will discover that this logic is flawed because 1) saturated fats are a diverse family of compounds with varying effects on the cholesterol profile and 2) the cholesterol profile itself is incredibly complex and simple measurements of “bad” (HDL) and “good” (LDL) cholesterol alone probably don’t tell us enough about the risk of heart disease .
Partially as a result of these guidelines, the pattern of dairy fat intake has changed considerably in the last 40 years, a time frame during which the modern obesity epidemic has developed in the United States Butter consumption has dropped considerably and low fat milk has supplanted full fat milk as the preferred product. In parallel, dairy fat consumption from other, possibly less healthy sources such as prepared foods, pizza, industrially produced margarine.
When epidemiologists have scientifically reviewed the relationship between high fat dairy consumption and heart disease or obesity, almost invariably they have found an inverse relationship. That is, the more dairy consumed, the lower the risk of heart disease and the less obesity.
In subsequent posts we’ll look in more detail at the evidence supporting dairy consumption in reducing heart disease and obesity.