Why Did I Go Into Atrial Fibrillation?

The skeptical cardiologist is asked this  question or  variations of it (such as  what caused me to go out of rhythm?) on a daily basis.
Most patients would like to have a reason for why their atria suddenly decided to fibrillate.  It’s understandable. If they could identify the reason perhaps they could stop it from happening again.
There are two variations on this question:
For the patient who has just been diagnosed with afib the question is really “what is the underlying reason for me developing this condition?”
For the patient who has had afib for a while and it comes and goes seemingly randomly the question is “what caused the afib at this time? i.e. what triggers my episodes?”
For most patients, there is no straighforward and simple answer to either one of these questions

The Underlying Cause of Atrial Fibrillation

My stock response to this first question goes like this:
“Atrial fibrillation is associated with getting older and having high blood pressure. 10 % of individual >/= 80 years have atrial fibrillation. 90% of patients with afib have hypertension.
Aging and hypertension may increase scarring or damage in the left atrium or pulmonary veins that drain into the left atrium setting up abnormal electrical signals.
There are some specific things that cause afib and we will be doing a complete history and physical and some testing to check for the most common. We’ll check you for thyroid or electrolyte abnormalities and we will do an echocardiogram to look for any structural problems with your heart.
If we do find a treatable cause such as hyperthyroidism or a cardiac valve problem we will fix that and the afib may go away, however chances are we won’t find a specific reason why you developed atrial fibrillation.
Finally, and possibly most importantly, let’s take a close look at your lifestyle. Are you overweight? If so, losing 10% of your body weight will substantially lower your risk of recurrent atrial fibrillation. Let’s get you exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet, Make sure your sleep is optimized and your stress minimized.”
If you’d like a more sophisticated look into what causes afib take a look at this graphic from a recent paper.
Current theory has it that factors that we know are associated with atrial fibrillation  including obesity, hypertension and sleep apnea cause atrial structural abnormalities or remodeling which then create various atrial electrical abnormalities.


Exhaustive List of Causes

If you’d like an exhaustive list of factors associated with atrial fibrillation, you can memorize the acronym P.I.R.A.T.E.S. which is sometimes used by medical students to remember the causes of atrial fibrillation which include:

  • Pulmonary disease (COPD, PE)/Phaeochromocytoma
  • Ischemia (ACS)
  • Rheumatic heart disease (mitral stenosis)
  • Anemia (high output failure/tachycardia)/Atrial myxoma/Acid-base disturbance
  • Thyrotoxicosis (tachycardia)
  • Ethanol/Endocarditis/Electrolyte disturbance (hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia)/Elevated BP
  • Sepsis/Sick Sinus Syndrome/Sympathomimetics (Drugs)

And here’s a cute  mnemonic from the Family Practice Notebook using ATRIAL FIB itself (although you have to use the ph of pheochromocytoma to make the f of fib)

  1. Alcohol Abuse
  2. Thyroid Disease
  3. Rheumatic Heart Disease
  4. Ischemic Heart Disease
  5. Atrial Myxoma
  6. Lung (Pulmonary Embolism, Emphysema)
  7. Pheochromocytoma
  8. Idiopathic
  9. Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Both of these mnemonics are a little outdated. For example, rheumatic mitral stenosis is quite rare as a cause of afib in the US but  degenerative and functional mitral regurgitation is a common cause.
Ischemic heart disease (aka coronary heart disease) isn’t felt to cause atrial fibrillation unless it results in a myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure. Way too many cardiac catheterizations are performed on patients who present with atrial fibrillation by doctors who don’t know this.
Congenital heart defects (not mentioned in either mnemonic) especially atrial septal defects often are associated with afib
There may be case reports of pheochromocytoma (a catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumor) causing afib but they are few and far between.
Finally, genetics clearly play a role in the younger patient with afib without any known risk factors. One of my patients and his twin brother both developed symptomatic afib in their 40s.

In The Chronic Afibber What Triggers An Episode?

Alas, for most afibbers we won’t identify specific reasons why you go in and out of afib although there are some triggers you should definitely avoid such as excessive alcohol.

Some of the “causes” listed in the mnemonic are acute triggers of afib episodes.
For example low potassium or magnesium (typically induced by diuretics, diarrhea or vomiting) can bring on episodes .(See my discussion on potassium and PVCS here-much of it is relevant to afib.)
And I  have definitely seen patients go  into atrial fibrillation who have acute pulmonary problems such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolism or exacerbation of COPD.  In these cases, it is felt that the lung process raises pressure in the pulmonary arteries thereby  putting strain on the right heart leading to higher right atrial pressures.
Sleep apnea is associated with afib and I have had a few cases where after identifying that a patient’s  afib always began during sleep we were able to substantially lower episodes by treatment of sleep apnea.
Pericarditis with inflammation adjacent to the left atrium not uncommonly causes  afib. This is the likely mechanism for the afib that occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Since pericarditis may never recur (especially in the cardiac surgery patient) we think the risk of afib recurring is low in these patients.
Anything that raises stress and stimulates the sympathomimetic nervous system can be a trigger. For example, a young and otherwise healthy patient of mine went into afib after encountering a car in flames along the side of the road. We found that beta-blockers (which block the sympathetic nervous system) helped prevent her episodes.
Some patients have odd but reproducible triggers. One of my patients routinely went into afib when he ate ice cream. I had a simple , very effective treatment plan for him.

Caffeine and Chocolate

Many afibbers have been told to avoid caffeine but a recent study of 34,000 women found that there was no increased risk of afib with increasing caffeine content and no sign that any of the individual contributors to caffeine in the diet (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate) were more likely to cause afib.

Higher chocolate consumption, in fact, has recently been linked to a lower rate of afib. An observational  study of 55 thousand Danish men and women found that those who consumed 2 to 6 servings per week of 1 oz (30 grams) of chocolate had a 20% lower rate of clinically apparent afib.

Alcohol and Atrial Fibrillation

Binge drinking has long been known to cause acute atrial fibrillation.
However, it appears that even light to moderate chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of going into atrial fibrillation.
This graphic from an excellent recent review of the topic gives the potential mechanisms:

The review concludes that although light to moderate alcohol consumption lowers your risk of dying, any alcohol consumption increases your risk of afib.
This graph shows the relationship between dying from heart disease (red line) and risk of going into afib (blue line) and amount of alcohol consumed.

Looking at the 15 drinks per week point on the x-axis (about 2 drinks per day) we see that your CV mortality is reduced by 20% whereas your risk of afib has increased by 20%.
A better point on the x-axis is 7 (1 drink per day) which has a 25% lower CV mortality but only a 10% higher risk of afib.
Whatever caused you to go into afib the good news is that with lifestyle changes and the care of a good cardiologist chances are excellent that you can live a normal, happy, healthy , long and active life.
Etiologically Yours,


17 thoughts on “Why Did I Go Into Atrial Fibrillation?”

  1. My husband has AFib episodes. He’s had a cardioversion, then an ablation. Then he had an esophageal bleed from a hiatal hernia rubbing on his esophagus which was repaired. The bleed also caused Hemaglobin levels as low as 7. Blood transfusion required, but 3 months later it’s still just around 12. 3 months later (last week)he had a prolonged episode for 4 days, not hours, and just had another cardioversion. I wondered if they were related and found reliable(?) medical research connecting hiatal hernia & GERD to initiating AFib. There was one unrelenting atrial node near the esophagus that troubled the EP during the ablation…
    SO…Are any of these problematic for AFibbers?
    LCHF eating
    Esophageal irritation
    Low hemoglobin
    Hiatal hernia
    Should he have his hiatal hernia repaired before proceeding with a second ablation or more?
    Pam G (RN who knows enough to ask a doc)

    • Your husband is a pretty complicated case that requires a good cardiologist who has a special interest in atrial fibrillation (not necessarily an EP doc) to obtain a complete history and physical and review all of his records in detail to render an intelligent and helpful recommendation.
      I think a second opinion is never a bad idea.
      In general
      I don’t see LCHF eating as problematic for afibbers. if it is a successful diet that keeps weight off I am in favor it.
      2. I am unaware of hiatal hernia being a trigger for afib.
      3. The ablation procedure is in the left atrium , immediately adjacent to the esophagus and there are reports of severe problems related to damage to the esophagus post ablation

  2. I’m not sure how I got Andrea switched to Buon. My apologies to any Italians offended by that error. It was never my intention to disparage Dr. Natale and I’ve corrected the date for departure from CC and put in a nice summary of his career and body of work. I commend him for spending time sharing his expertise with patients.
    If I can gather enough time to write a post on ablation I’ll look more closely at his work.
    I would agree that genetics plays a role many older cases of afib. But I think the younger you are (and this somewhat implies a lack of or minimal amount of the risks you list) the more likely that your afib has a genetic basis.

  3. My afib started after 33 radiation treatments to the left breast at 9:00 position along with being diagnosed with radiation pneumonitis.

  4. I believe there is something that triggers every disease. I read somewhere that most of those with Afib have stomach problems. Also that Afib can trigger hairloss. I M a senior & have all three.
    I recently had cataract surgery & 2 weeks to the day massive hsirloss. All those eye drops do not stay in your eye. I had multiple as saw 2
    Ophamologists …one twice in about 8 months. So loads of dilating drugs as well as anti inflammatory ones. Very depressing as no doctor can give me an answer. Now the Afib is on the back burner.

  5. While I agree with most of the content of this article there MUST be a substrate present for the “trigger” to cause an episode? What is the percentage of people throughout the US that are obese? What percentage have AFIB? No substrate no trigger.

      • Hi Doc,
        I will read. Do you know Dr. Natale? That was, in all likelihood, a rhetorical question. Just simply wondering. I ask him questions from time to time. I have learned a lot from him and what I’ve been through over the last 4 years. Thanks for the citation.

        • Dr. Andrea Natale?
          I had not heard of him but he seems eminently qualified.
          From The Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute web site where he now works ( he was at Cleveland Clinic until 2007)
          Andrea Natale M.D., F.A.C.C., F.H.R.S., F.E.S.C., Executive Medical Director, Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute at St. David’s Medical Center
          Patients from around the world seek treatment from Dr. Natale. A world recognized leader in the field of electrophysiology, Dr. Natale is a dedicated clinician, academician and researcher.
          Prior to the establishment of Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute at St. David’s Medical Center, Dr. Natale was a member of the Cardiovascular Medicine Department at the Cleveland Clinic from 1999 to 2007, serving most recently as Section Head for the Department of Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology and as Medical Director for the Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Atrial Fibrillation. In 2006, Dr. Natale was named to the Food and Drug Administration’s Task Force on Atrial Fibrillation.
          A committed academician, Dr. Natale’ s faculty positions at a variety of prestigious universities include Duke University and Stanford University. He has been an invited lecturer at more than 200 symposiums and conferences around the world, and is the author or co-author of hundreds of published articles on pacing and electrophysiology. In addition to serving on the editorial boards of numerous medical journals, he is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Atrial Fibrillation.
          Dr. Natale’s greatest reward is restoring his patients to a life free of cardiac arrhythmia. He pioneered a circumferential ultrasound vein-ablation system to correct atrial fibrillation and performed the procedure on the world’s first five patients. He also developed some of the current catheter-based cures for atrial fibrillation, and was the first electrophysiologist in the nation to perform percutaneous epicardial radiofrequency ablation, which is a treatment for people who fail conventional ablation. He also holds a patent for a device used to treat Atrial Fibrillation.
          A forefront researcher, Dr. Natale focuses on innovative advances in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. His goal is to benefit patient care through technologies such as robotic devices and specialized ablation catheters.

          • Hi Doc,
            Yes, Andrea has an office in California. He is now director of TCAI in Austin. I must say, for a person who has achieved as muxh as he and is world renown, he is most humble, reponsive and, of course, one, if not the best, in eliminating AFIB/AFL.


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