Tag Archives: hazelnuts

The Fourth Nut

The skeptical cardiologist has given out the entire first batch of Dr. P’s Heart Nuts to his patients.

This precisely constructed mixture of hazelnuts, almonds and walnuts designed to maximize heart healthiness has been warmly received and hopefully enthusiastically consumed.

To some extent I feel like I may be preaching to the choir as many of the Heart Nuts recipients told me they were already avid nut fans and consumers.

However, I plan to press on with my mission to increase the amount of nut snacking in the world.

To this end, I have reorganized my blog and created a page devoted to Nuts and Drupes. You can find it here and I’ll reproduce it below.

Furthermore, I have decided to add a fourth nut to the mixture. At this time, I am intensely researching pistachio nuts and macadamia nuts to be the honored nut.

Please feel free to suggest other candidates to be  the Fourth Nut (along with appropriate justification) in the comments below and vote in the poll.

Macadamiamaniacaly Yours,

-ACP

From The Nuts Page

Nuts, despite containing a lot of fat, are a fantastic heart-healthy snack.

I’ve started handing out my special Dr. P’s Heart Nuts to patients along with the following:

Congratulations!

You have received a packet of cardiovascular disease-busting Dr. P’s Heart Nuts!
One packet 15 grams of almonds, 15 grams of hazelnuts and 30 grams of walnuts.

There is very good scientific evidence that consuming 1/2 packet of these per day will reduce your risk of dying from heart attacks, strokes, and cancer.

The exact components are based on the landmark randomized trial of the Mediterranean diet, enhanced by either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts (PREDIMED, in which participants in the two Mediterranean-diet groups received either extra-virgin olive oil (approximately 1 liter per week) or 30g of mixed nuts per day

In other observational studies it has been found that for every 28 grams/ day increase in nut intake, risk was reduced by:

29% for coronary heart disease 7% for stroke
21% for cardiovascular disease 15% for cancer

22% for all-cause mortality
Surprisingly, death from diseases, other than heart disease or cancer, were also significantly reduced:
52% for respiratory disease
35% for neurodenerative disease
75% for infectious disease
74% for kidney disease

So when you are considering snacking, snack on nuts not processed food! Dr. Pearson

Posts About Nuts

Posts relevant to nuts and prevention of heart disease on my blog are

Nuts, Drupes, Legumes and Mortality

Kind Bars versus Nuts: Choose Just Plain Nuts

Although Nutella contains some hazelnuts it is full of sugar and other processed ingredients: why not eat hazelnuts instead?

Nutty Due Diligence

I spent a lot of time sourcing the nuts for my Dr. P’s Heart Nuts and discovered some disturbing things about almonds.

First, almost all almonds sold in the US have been gassed with proplyene oxide.

Second, roasting almonds can lead to an increase in toxic chemicals.

After finding out the first two facts about almonds I ended up getting raw, organic almonds from Spain. Unfortunately, about 1 in 10 of these were extremely bitter. It turns out these bitter almonds have significant amounts of cyanide.  So I wrote “Beware The Bitter Almond.”

I switched my raw, organic almond source to Nuts.com and with their almonds I very rarely encounter the bitter almond.

The other nuts in the mixture are raw and organic and obtained from Nuts.com.

 

Dr. P’s Heart Nuts: Preventing Death In Multiple Ways

The skeptical cardiologist has finally prepared Dr. P’s Heart Nuts for distribution. IMG_8339The major stumbling block in preparing them was finding almonds which were raw (see here), but not gassed with proplyene oxide (see here), and which did not contain potentially toxic levels of cyanide (see here).

During this search I learned a lot about almonds and cyanide toxicity, and ended up using raw organic almonds from nuts.com, which come from Spain.

I’ll be giving out these packets (containing 15 grams of almonds, 15 grams of hazelnuts and 30 grams of walnuts) to my patients because there is really good scientific evidence that consuming 1/2 packet of these per day will reduce their risk of dying from heart attacks, strokes, and cancer.

IMG_7965The exact components are based on the landmark randomized trial of the Mediterranean diet, enhanced by either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts (PREDIMED, in which participants in the two Mediterranean-diet groups received either extra-virgin olive oil (approximately 1 liter per week) or 30g of mixed nuts per day (15g of walnuts, 7.5g of hazelnuts, and 7.5g of almonds) at no cost, and those in the control group received small nonfood gifts).

After 5 years, those on the Mediterranean diet had about a 30% lower rate of heart attack, stroke or cardiovascular death than the control group.

It’s fantastic to have a randomized trial (the strongest form of scientific evidence) supporting nuts, as it buttresses consistent (weaker, but easier to obtain), observational data.

Trademark

I applied for a trademark for my Heart Nuts, not because I plan to market them, but because I thought it would be interesting to possess a trademark of some kind.

The response from a lawyer at the federal trademark and patent office is hilariously full of mind-numbing and needlessly complicated legalese.

Heres one example:

"DISCLAIMER REQUIRED
Applicant must disclaim the wording “NUTS” because it merely describes an ingredient of applicant’s goods, and thus is an unregistrable component of the mark.  See 15 U.S.C. §§1052(e)(1), 1056(a); DuoProSS Meditech Corp. v. Inviro Med. Devices, Ltd., 695 F.3d 1247, 1251, 103 USPQ2d 1753, 1755 (Fed. Cir. 2012) (quoting In re Oppedahl & Larson LLP, 373 F.3d 1171, 1173, 71 USPQ2d 1370, 1371 (Fed. Cir. 2004)); TMEP §§1213, 1213.03(a).

The attached evidence from The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language shows this wording means “[a]n indehiscent fruit having a single seed enclosed in a hard shell, such as an acorn or hazelnut”, or “[a]ny of various other usually edible seeds enclosed in a hard covering such as a seed coat or the stone of a drupe, as in a pine nut, peanut, almond, or walnut.”  Therefore, the wording merely describes applicant’s goods, in that they consist exclusively of nuts identified as hazelnuts, almonds, and walnuts.

An applicant may not claim exclusive rights to terms that others may need to use to describe their goods and/or services in the marketplace.  See Dena Corp. v. Belvedere Int’l, Inc., 950 F.2d 1555, 1560, 21 USPQ2d 1047, 1051 (Fed. Cir. 1991); In re Aug. Storck KG, 218 USPQ 823, 825 (TTAB 1983).  A disclaimer of unregistrable matter does not affect the appearance of the mark; that is, a disclaimer does not physically remove the disclaimed matter from the mark.  See Schwarzkopf v. John H. Breck, Inc., 340 F.2d 978, 978, 144 USPQ 433, 433 (C.C.P.A. 1965); TMEP §1213.

If applicant does not provide the required disclaimer, the USPTO may refuse to register the entire mark.  SeeIn re Stereotaxis Inc., 429 F.3d 1039, 1040-41, 77 USPQ2d 1087, 1088-89 (Fed. Cir. 2005); TMEP §1213.01(b).

Applicant should submit a disclaimer in the following standardized format:

No claim is made to the exclusive right to use “NUTS” apart from the mark as shown."

I’ve gotten dozens of emails from trademark attorneys offering to help me respond to the denial of my trademark request. Is this a conspiracy amongst lawyers to gin up business?

Nuts Reduce Mortality From Lots of Different Diseases

The most recent examination of observational data performed a meta-analysis of 20 prospective studies of nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in adult populations published up to July 19, 2016.

It found that for every 28 grams/day increase in nut intake, risk was reduced by:

29% for coronary heart disease

7% for stroke (not significant)

21% for cardiovascular disease

15% for cancer

22% for all-cause mortality

Surprisingly, death from diseases, other than heart disease or cancer, were also significantly reduced:

52% for respiratory disease

35% for neurodenerative disease

75% for infectious disease

74% for kidney disease

The authors concluded:

If the associations are causal, an estimated 4.4 million premature deaths in the America, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific would be attributable to a nut intake below 20 grams per day in 2013.

If everybody consumed Dr. P’s Heart Nuts, we could save 4.4 million lives!

Meditativeterraneanly Yours,

-ACP

If you’re curious about why nuts are so healthy, check out this recent meta-analysis, a discussion of possible mechanisms of the health benefits of nuts complete with references:

Nuts are good sources of unsaturated fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium, and phytochemicals. Intervention studies have shown that nut consumption reduces total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of low- to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglyceride levels in a dose–response manner [4, 65]. In addition, studies have shown reduced endothelial dysfunction [8], lipid peroxidation [7], and insulin resistance [6, 66] with a higher intake of nuts. Oxidative damage and insulin resistance are important pathogenic drivers of cancer [67, 68] and a number of specific causes of death [69]. Nuts and seeds and particularly walnuts, pecans, and sunflower seeds have a high antioxidant content [70], and could prevent cancer by reducing oxidative DNA damage [9], cell proliferation [71, 72], inflammation [73, 74], and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations [75] and by inducing apoptosis [71], suppressing angiogenesis [76], and altering the gut microbiota [77]. Although nuts are high in total fat, they have been associated with lower weight gain [78, 79, 80] and lower risk of overweight and obesity [79] in observational studies and some randomized controlled trials [80].

Nutella: Healthy and Natural Spread or Highly Processed, Slickly Marketed Junk Food?

It’s World Nutella day according to Ferrero, the Italian confectonery company and manufacturer of the globally beloved hazelnut-based spread.screen-shot-2017-02-05-at-6-28-42-am

“With Nutella we spread positive energy to families to bring more happiness to the world” we are informed. On this day, apparently, the world should be spreading Nutella on as many food products as possible, ramping up positive energy levels to unprecedented levels.

Here are some of the other products Ferrero sells:screen-shot-2017-02-05-at-9-08-21-am

Three of them are clearly recognized by consumers as candy.

Should Nutella be in the same category as tic-tacs?

 

 

Nutella Ingredients

Perhaps in anticipation of World Nutella Day, a graphic has been appearing on Twitter:

nutella-englisy

detailing the ingredients of Nutella. The English version of this was posted on Reddit on a subreddit that I can’t mention on my family-friendly blog. It is a translation of a graphic that was published in German originally.

screen-shot-2017-02-05-at-8-18-31-am
If you thought you were getting mostly hazelnuts under the lid as this Nutella website graphic implies, you will be disappointed.

I’m not sure where the original data for the graphic came from but it seems to be a reasonable illustration of how much of Nutella is made up of palm oil and sugar. A 2 tbsp serving of Nutella (37 grams) contains 12 grams of fat, 21 grams of sugar and 2 grams of protein. Only about 12% of Nutella comes from actual hazelnuts.

I don’t have any concerns from a cardiovascular risk standpoint with the fat content of either the palm oil or the hazelnuts in Nutella.

But the 5 teaspoons of sugar per serving screen-shot-2017-02-05-at-8-44-16-am

are just still another source of empty
sugar calories adding to the daily dietary glut of sugar consumers face when consuming highly processed foods.

Nutella definitely is a highly processed, highly sugared product that shouldn’t be a regular part of a healthy Mediterranean diet. Most of the ingredients have gone through  complex sourcing and factory processing although their marketing material strains to emphasize the freshness and naturalness of these ingredients.

screen-shot-2017-02-05-at-6-30-27-am

One ingredient not depicted on the now viral graphic of Nutella is vanillin. From Nutella’s ingredient graphic one might think the screen-shot-2017-02-05-at-6-34-38-amvanillin is being extracted from (per wikipedia)

“the seed pods of Vanilla planifolia, a vining orchid native to Mexico, but now grown in tropical areas around the globe.”

In reality, however, the Nutella people,  ” use synthetic vanillin, an aroma identical to the one naturally present in the vanilla pod.”

Is the Palm OIl In Nutella Carcinogenic?

Some question the healthiness of the palm oil in nutella, either due to its high saturated fat content or its carcinogenic potential. A european food safety authority paper in May, 2016 declared certain toxins found in palm oil in particular to be “genotoxic and carcinogenic”

EFSA assessed the risks for public health of the substances: glycidyl fatty acid esters (GE), 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD), and 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) and their fatty acid esters. The substances form during food processing, in particular, when refining vegetable oils at high temperatures (approx. 200°C)

The highest levels of GE, as well as 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD (including esters) were found in palm oils and palm fats, followed by other oils and fats. For consumers aged three and above, margarines and ‘pastries and cakes’ were the main sources of exposure to all substances.

As a result, According to Reuters, In Italy, some products containing palm oil have been removed from grocer’s shelves and one pastry company has eliminated palm oil from it products, labeling them as “palm oil free.”

High temperatures are used to remove palm oil’s natural red color and neutralize its smell, but Ferrero says it uses an industrial process that combines a temperature of just below 200C and extremely low pressure to minimize contaminants.

Nutella has fought back, defending its use of palm oil, with television and print advertisements.

Healthier Alternatives To Nutella

Conner Middleman, nutritionist , cooking instructor and author of Zest For Life, has shared with me her recipe for Nutritella, a healthier version of Nutella you can make at home. She points out in her intro to the recipe:

Nutella was invented in the 1940s in the Piedmont region of northern Italy, where hazelnuts grow plentifully. Alas, modern, store-bought Nutella contains a mere 13% hazelnut and only a hint of cocoa; the rest is made up of sugar, palm oil and artificial vanilla flavoring. My home-made version of Nutella, on the other hand, contains very little sweetener (in the form of raw honey), 3 tablespoons of flavonoid-rich dark cocoa, and about 90% hazelnuts, which boast a particularly high concentration of antioxidants and healthy fats (mostly monounsaturated). This is not to say that you should eat this spread by the tablespoonful; its high fat content means it’s high in calories and it should be enjoyed in sensible amounts (1-2 tbsp/day). The good news is that a high-fat food such as this one keeps you sated for longer, and because it is made from whole, real foods, it’s not only rich in calories, but also in nutrients! 

Here’s the recipe:

1 cup/125g toasted hazelnuts (Trader Joe’s roasted Oregon hazelnuts work great here; alternatively buy plain, raw hazelnuts and roast them yourself as described below)

½ oz/2 tbsp/15g unsweetened cocoa

3 tbsp hazelnut oil (La Tourangelle is my favorite brand – available in the oils section of good supermarkets or online)

3 tbsp honey or maple syrup

2 tsp alcohol-free vanilla extract (e.g., Trader Joe’s)

6-8 tbsp milk/plant milk/water

If you are roasting the hazelnuts from scratch, preheat oven to 350F. Place nuts on a dry, clean baking sheet and roast for 8 minutes (set timer). Remove and tip hot nuts onto a clean kitchen towel (pictured here).

As they cool, the skins will loosen, crack and flake off. Gather up the towel by its corners and scoop together into a tight bundle. Hold the bundle with one hand and knead the nuts with the other through the cloth to rub the skins off them. Place bundle back on a flat surface and open; lift out the nuts and lightly shake off the skins. (Leave some skin on the nuts – it’s where most of the antioxidants reside.)

If using pre-roasted nuts, start here.

Place the hazelnuts in an electric blender with the cocoa, oil, honey/maple syrup and vanilla extract. Process on “high” for about 30-40 seconds until all the ingredients come together in a coarse paste.

With the motor running, add milk or water (whichever using), a tablespoon at a time, and keep processing until the mixture reaches the desired consistency.

Transfer to a clean glass jar and refrigerate. Keeps for at least 2 weeks.

You can check out Conner’s excellent website, Modern Mediterranean, replete with more recipes and information on the cancer-fighting benefits of the Mediterranean diet,  here. and her You-tube channel here.

Of course, the skeptical cardiologist Heart Nuts project advocates just eating  heartnutsunadulterated hazelnuts along with other healthy drupes, nuts and legumes for snacking and soon we will be distributing these to you using our trademark-pending walnut-auscultating squirrel, Sparky.

Notnutellingly Yours,

-ACP

 

Roasted vs. Raw Almonds: Which Are Healthiest And Most Cardioprotective?

As part of the Dr. P Heart Nuts Project, the skeptical cardiologist has been trying to determine what constitutes the best and most cardioprotective almonds.

Previously I decided  that i would not be consuming or handing out almonds pasteurized with propylene oxide (PPO). PPO was used as a racing fuel before being banned and is used in thermobaric weapons (one of my least favorite weapons of mass destruction) and in making polyurethane plastics and is a recognized carcinogen.
Since 2004 almost all “raw” almonds consumed in the US have been treated with PPO.

Cardioprotective Almonds: Best Raw or Roasted?

There are two issues with roasting: are we destroying good nutrients and are we creating bad chemicals?

Effects of Roasting on Good Nutrients

The cardioprotective component of nuts and almonds is presumed  related to phytochemicals, especially phenolics and flavonoids which may act as antioxidants. But truly we don’t know with any certainty which of the many potentially beneficial components-minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, proteins are helpful. And we have little understanding of how roasting, steaming, soaking, fermenting, germinating, or fumigating affects the cardioprotective components.

In terms of measurable important macronutrients, vitamins and minerals there is no significant difference between roasted and raw nuts.

One study  compared consuming roasted versus raw hazelnuts on various cardiovascular parameters. Compared with baseline, consuming both forms of hazelnuts significantly improved HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations, total-C/HDL-C ratio, and systolic blood pressure. These changes would be expected to result in improved cardiovascular outomes.

One argument I hear frequently from patients worried about weight gain is that nuts are very energy dense and therefore will contribute to weight gain if added to the diet or consumed as a snack.

In the roasted versus raw hazelnut study:

However, no evidence for weight gain was observed with the consumption of either raw or dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts in the present study, and in fact, small reductions in weight were observed. Results of the present study further add to previous research, which suggests that regular nut consumption results in either no weight gain or less weight gain than predicted This may be explained by dietary compensation, inefficient energy absorption, and an increase in metabolic rate.

Thus, neither roasted nor raw nuts contribute to weight gain.

I particular like one line from the conclusions of this study:

both forms of nuts are resistant to monotony

Really! That is tremendously reassuring because I have always worried  about my nuts getting bored.

Bottom line: Probably little change in the good components of nuts and almonds with roasting.

Effects of Roasting Almonds on Increasing Bad Chemicals

About a third of almonds and nuts are consumed in roasted form because a majority of people prefer the taste created by the Maillard reaction during roasting. Almonds can be roasted at home and the typical recommendation is an oven temperature of 350 degrees which corresponds to 177 degrees Celsius.

An analysis from the Winnipeg Health Authority found that roasting at temperatures higher than 140 degrees Celsius has some potentially worrisome consequences:

Lipid oxidation

-High heat used during the processing of nuts has the potential to develop lipid oxidation products, which include trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids, while not present in raw nuts, were found to be significantly higher in roasted pistachios, peanuts, and almonds (0.5-0.9g/100g).
-Trans fat is known to increase LDL cholesterol and decrease HDL cholesterol, leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk.
-While roasting temperature was found to substantially increase lipid oxidation, roasting time had less of an effect on lipid oxidation. It is therefore recommended to roast nuts at a moderate temperature (130-150°C), for a longer period of time, rather than roasting at high heat for a shorter period of time (reference here)

Acrylamide

-Acrylamide has been identified as a probable carcinogen to humans. The amount of free aspargine in almonds makes them more susceptible to the Maillard reaction, which results in acrylamide formation. Time and temperature are known determinants of acrylamide formation in foods. Hence, darkly roasted almonds were found to have a much higher amount of acrylamide than lightly roasted almonds. The amount of acrylamide that is initially formed after processing was found to decrease over time. Acrylamide content of almonds therefore differs widely depending on roasting time and temperature, as well as length of time after processing.
-It was observed that almonds processed under roasting temperatures of 140-180°C led to the accelerated production of acrylamide. It is therefore recommended to roast almonds below 140°C

The acrylamide study authors noted that:

Almonds of European origin contained significantly less free asparagine and formed significantly less acrylamide during roasting as compared to the almonds from the U.S. Roasted hazelnuts contained very little acrylamide because of the low content of free asparagine in the raw nut.).

Bottom Line: Roasting almonds has the potential for creating some bad chemicals which might negate their beneficial effects.

I asked Whole Foods (my typical almond source) about the roasting process for their roasted almonds and they responded thusly:

“PPO and chemical methods of pasteurization are against our Quality Standards. Our almonds are pasteurized with steam. Our almonds are roasted with canola oil at 148 degrees (celsius).”

Yikes! Canola oil! 148 degrees! (When I asked Whole Foods did they really mean 148 degrees Celsius, the response was , no, I meant 148 degrees Fahrenheit. The skeptical cardiologist wonders.)

img_7965
The first sack of cardioprotective nuts from Dr. Pearson’s nutshop. There are from the Superior Nut Company. I’m still working on the packaging. They are raw and not treated with PPO.

It appears even Whole Foods roasted almonds have the potential for containing harmful acrylamides and trans-fats therefore when the skeptical cardiologist starts handing out packets of his cardioprotective nuts the almonds will be raw and they will be from Spain just like the almonds consumed in the landmark PREDIMED study that established their heart benefits.

Happy Thanksgiving!I hope you are able to stay resistant to monotony during this festive season.

-ACP

Speaking of resisting monotony, did you know this about thermobaric weapons?

“The [blast] kill mechanism against living targets is unique–and unpleasant…. What kills is the pressure wave, and more importantly, the subsequent rarefaction [vacuum], which ruptures the lungs…. If the fuel deflagrates but does not detonate, victims will be severely burned and will probably also inhale the burning fuel. Since the most common FAE fuels, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, are highly toxic, undetonated FAE should prove as lethal to personnel caught within the cloud as most chemical agents.”